Exercise to Maintain Blood Pressure (BP) – Heigh and Low Blood Pressure| Hypertension

Exercise to Maintain Blood Pressure (BP)

Last Updated: January 20, 2022 (A few hours ago…)

Exercise to Maintain Blood Pressure (BP) - Heigh and Low Blood Pressure| Hypertension

 

 

 

 

What is blood pressure (BP) and what is it formed from

AD = SV * OPSS

Where SV¬†‚Äď cardiac output ‚Äď is the amount of blood that the heart pumps into the vascular system in 1 min.

OPSS¬†is the total peripheral resistance of blood vessels ‚Äď small arteries that have a developed muscle layer, with the contraction of which, the narrowing of the vascular walls occurs, increasing the level of resistance and increasing blood pressure.¬†Vascular tone directly depends on the work of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

SV = ńĆSS * UO

Where HR is the number of heartbeats in 1 min. Heart rate directly depends on the work of the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS.

SV¬†‚Äď stroke volume ‚Äď the volume of blood that the left ventricle throws into the circulatory system in one contraction.¬†VO depends, firstly, on how fully possible the relaxation of the heart after contraction, and secondly, on the total volume of circulating blood.¬†If the volume of blood is small, the heart has nothing to fill.¬†With bleeding, SV decreases, as a result, CO decreases, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure.

The volume of circulating blood (BCC) depends on the amount of fluid in the body, which, in turn, depends on the amount of water that enters and is removed from the body. Where does water in the body come from? Each person’s body contains about 400 ml. metabolic (endogenous) water. In addition, we get from what we eat and drink.

The main route of excretion of fluid is through the kidneys. If the kidneys remove less fluid, then the BCC and, accordingly, the CO will increase, which will lead to an increase in blood pressure; if the kidneys remove more fluid, then the BCC and CO will decrease, leading to a decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, one of the ways to lower blood pressure is the use of diuretics.

 

High blood pressure and its causes

High blood pressure ‚Äď arterial hypertension ‚Äď a steady increase in blood pressure of more than 139 and 89 mm Hg.¬†Art.¬†The first value is systolic pressure ‚Äď the pressure at the time of left ventricular contraction.¬†That is, the pressure that forces the ventricle into the circulatory system.¬†The second value is diastolic pressure ‚Äď the pressure in the arterial system at the moment of relaxation of the left ventricle.

Arterial hypertension is usually divided into two groups (AH):

  1. Primary arterial hypertension (essential). It has no specific reason and is formed from a combination of various factors.
  2. Secondary hypertension (symptomatic). Has specific reasons for the formation and is one of the symptoms of certain diseases.

 

 

Exercise to Maintain Blood Pressure (BP) - Heigh and Low Blood Pressure | Hypertension

 

Common causes of high blood pressure in a person suffering from secondary arterial hypertension

  • Renal (kidney disease).¬†When the pressure in the renal artery decreases, the kidney secretes the hormone renin, which triggers the mechanisms of increasing blood pressure, thus increasing the pressure in the renal artery as well.¬†With inflammation of the kidneys, their regulatory mechanism fails ‚Äď and they begin to secrete an excess amount of renin, thereby leading to hypertension.
  • Renovascular (renal artery stenosis).¬†With atherosclerosis of the renal artery, its narrowing and pressure decrease occurs.¬†The kidney responds by releasing the hormone renin into the bloodstream to increase blood pressure.¬†Due to the poor patency of the artery, the pressure does not decrease ‚Äď and the kidney releases renin again and again, leading to hypertension.
  • Endocrine pathology (usually of a tumor nature).¬†With a tumor of the adrenal gland, for example, there is an increased release of the hormone adrenaline into the bloodstream, which leads to an increase in blood pressure;¬†if the cause is removed, blood pressure is normalized.
  • Vascular pathology (coarctation of the aorta).¬†Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect characterized by a narrowing of the lumen of the aorta, which provokes the creation of two zones of blood circulation ‚Äď a zone of high pressure before narrowing and a zone of low pressure after narrowing.¬†The narrowing site of the aorta is located just behind the vessels that carry blood to the head and arms, so coarctation prevents blood flow from the heart to the lower body.¬†For this reason, there is a difference in blood pressure between the arms, where blood pressure is high, and the legs, where it is low.

 

Causes of primary arterial hypertension (AH)

  • Genetics.¬†In the presence of chronic hypertension in a family, the likelihood increases that offspring will also inherit this trait.
  • Chronic sympathetic activation with frequent stress.¬†Stress stimulates the sympathetic nervous system ‚Äď and leads to an increase in blood pressure.
  • Decreased baroreceptor activity.¬†Baroreceptors are sensitive nerve endings in blood vessels that sense changes in blood pressure and reflexively regulate blood pressure levels;¬†come into a state of excitement when the walls of blood vessels are stretched.¬†With an increase in blood pressure, baroreceptors send impulses to the central NS, which suppress the tone of the vascular center and excite the central formations of the parasympathetic section of the NS, which leads to a decrease in pressure.¬†With a frequent increase in blood pressure, baroreceptors adapt to it, which is the reason for the development of hypertension.¬†In young people, baroreceptors respond correctly to an increase in blood pressure, but in older people, their work malfunctions, therefore, jumps in blood pressure are possible.
  • Features of the kidneys.¬†The mechanism of work of the kidneys is clearly debugged: they support the BCC, the release of the hormone renin, etc., but in some cases, the mechanism of the work of the kidneys fails, which leads to an increase in blood pressure.
  • Features of the endothelium.¬†The endothelium is the inner layer of the vascular wall, which affects the tone of the muscle layer by releasing special chemicals that relax the muscle tissue, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure.¬†When a malfunction occurs in the mechanism of the endothelium, and it does not release or does not release enough ‚Äúrelaxing‚ÄĚ chemicals, blood pressure rises.

 

Factors that affect blood pressure

  1. Pressor (increasing blood pressure).
  2. Depressor (lowering blood pressure).

Pressor factors include sympathetic NS, the hormone renin, etc.

Depressor factors include parasympathetic NS, the work of baroreceptors, etc.

Both of them are present in our body. Normal blood pressure depends on the balance of these factors. In conditions of physical activity, pressor factors will dominate, and blood pressure will increase, and in conditions of rest and relaxation, depressive factors, and blood pressure will decrease.

With an imbalance of pressor and depressor factors and an increase in the former, essential hypertension develops.

 

 

High blood pressure symptoms

  • Dizziness.
  • Redness of the face.
  • Headache.
  • Increased fatigue.
  • Nosebleeds.
  • Increased excitability.

What is the danger of high blood pressure? A hypertensive crisis is a sharp increase in blood pressure with an increase in the manifestation of symptoms. However, more often high blood pressure is asymptomatic, which increases the risk of possible complications in the form of damage to target organs, such as:

  • Brain (stroke).
  • Heart (myocardial infarction and heart failure).
  • Kidneys (renal failure).
  • Eyes (retinal hemorrhage and blindness).

 

Stages of hypertension (HD)

  1. Stage 1 HD: no changes in target organs.
  2. Stage 2 GB: there were changes in the structure of the O-M without functional impairment (left ventricular hypertrophy, deformation of the vessels of the fundus, etc.).
  3. Stage 3 GB: O-M lesion with functional impairment (stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, etc.).

 

 

Exercise to Maintain Blood Pressure (BP) - Heigh and Low Blood Pressure | Hypertension

 

Treatments for high blood pressure

  1. Medication.
  2. Non-medicated.

Medication is prescribed by the doctor on an individual basis, so we will not consider it in this article.

Non-pharmacological agents include:

  • Quitting smoking and drinking alcohol.
  • Normalization of body weight.
  • Restriction in the use of table salt.
  • Regular physical activity.
  • Muscle relaxation techniques.
  • Autogenic training.

Non-pharmacological agents are especially effective in the early stages of hypertension. If the disease has become chronic, you cannot do without medicines, since without them a heart attack, stroke, as well as related disability and even death, are possible.

 

 

Exercises to restore normal blood pressure

An important component of non-drug treatment of hypertension is the dosed performance of physical exercises, the positive effect of which is due to the creation of optimal conditions for the work of the heart, regulatory systems, a decrease in body weight, and an increase in exercise tolerance.

Even a single physical activity causes a decrease in blood pressure, which is a manifestation of the so-called post-load arterial hypotension, which persists for several hours after the end of the load.

Physical activity should be daily or with a break of one day, moderate intensity and last at least 30 minutes. The most physiological physical activity for a person is walking ‚Äď at least 3000 steps a day.

 

Basic guidelines for building sets of exercises to reduce blood pressure

  • General parasympathetic focus: exercise should lead to more calming of the NS than arousal.
  • The predominance of static exercises with a short hold.
  • Small intermediate rest between exercise ligaments.
  • Performing breathing techniques ‚Äď pranayamas with a parasympathetic effect.
  • Inclusion in the practice of relaxation techniques such as yoga nidra, trataka, meditation, autogenous training, etc.

 

Exercise for hypertension

  1. Walking on toes with high knees.
  2. For the next exercise, you will need a meter stick, a gymnastic belt, or a tight belt. Starting position (IP) standing with a stick in his hands, taken by the ends. As we inhale, raise our arms forward and upward, pulling the right leg back and placing it on the toe. On exhalation, we return to the IP. Repeat the same for the other side. Start with 5 sets for each side.
  3. SP standing with a stick in his hands, taken by the ends. While inhaling, take your right leg to the side, while exhaling, bend your body to the right. Repeat the same for the other side. Start with 5 sets for each side.
  4. SP is the same. It is necessary to raise the stick by the right end (the left remains on the bottom) and take your hands to the left as you exhale. While inhaling, return to the PI. Raise the stick by the left end (the right remains on the bottom) and move your arms to the right as you exhale. Start with 5 sets for each side.
  5. SP is the same. As you inhale, raise your arms up, as you exhale with your body, turn them to the right (the legs remain in place), while inhaling, return to the center, while exhaling, turn to the left. Start with 5 sets for each side.
  6. SP is the same. Legs together, arms raised forward and up. While inhaling, lunge with your right leg to the right (take your leg to the side and bend it at the knee) with the stick in the same direction. As you exhale, return to the PI. Repeat the same for the other side. Start with 5 sets for each side.
  7. IP standing. Hands are put behind the back with a grip of the stick by the ends. As you inhale, rise on your toes and pull the stick as high as possible. As you exhale, return to the PI. Complete 10 sets.

 

It is generally accepted that flexion in the hip joints, that is, tilt of the trunk to the legs and vice versa (in a sitting position, in a static mode and in a non-force version), stimulates the work of the parasympathetic NS.

  • Jan Shirshasana‚Ķ¬†Sit with straight legs on a firm surface.¬†Place a small, firm pillow or folded blanket under your basin.¬†This is necessary for those for whom traction on the back of the legs is very difficult and possibly painful.¬†Bending the right leg at the knee, press the foot of the same name to the inner surface of the left thigh as close to the pelvis as possible.¬†Take any tight belt or strap in your hands and hook it in the middle of the pad under the toes of your left foot (we hold onto the ends of the belt with our hands).¬†Next, straightening your back, lower yourself into a slope, reducing the distance between the left costal arch and the thigh of the left leg.¬†Do not try to reach the floor with your forehead!¬†This will inevitably round your back.¬†Stretch to the thigh precisely with the ribs, when the stomach is pressed, then it will be possible to lay down the chest, and only in the very last place ‚Äď the head.¬†The main obstacle during slopes is hard,¬†unstretched muscles of the back of the legs.¬†Practice regularly and the distance between the abdomen and hips will gradually decrease.¬†Remain in this position for 1 minute.¬†and more.
  • Pashchimottanasana¬†.¬†Sit with straight legs on a firm surface.¬†Place a small, firm pillow or folded blanket under your basin.¬†Take a belt or belt in your hands and hook it in the middle of the pads under your toes.¬†Next, straightening your back, lower yourself into a slope, reducing the distance between the abdomen and hips.¬†Remain in this position for 1 minute.¬†and more.
  • Upavishta Konasana¬†.¬†Sit with your legs wide apart on a hard surface.¬†Place a small, firm pillow or folded blanket under your basin.¬†Place your hands on the floor in front of your pelvis.¬†While directing the ischial bones and tailbone back and up, lean your body forward and down toward the floor without rounding your back.¬†How do you know if you are doing the exercise correctly?¬†Initially, you sit on the perineum and ischial bones, but during the tilt, the ischial bones are released and directed back, and you move through the perineum closer to the pubic bone.¬†Stay in this position for 1 minute.¬†and more.
  • Shashankasana¬†.¬†Kneeling, lower your pelvis to your heels.¬†Spread your knees to the sides.¬†Lean your body towards the floor.¬†Direct your hands forward, towards the crown, place your hand on your hand and head on top.¬†Stay in this position for 3 minutes.¬†and more.

The effect of breathing exercises to reduce pressure also comes down to stimulating the parasympathetic part of the NS.

 

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These include:

  • Full yoga breathing¬†.¬†During such breathing, the diaphragm, external intercostal, scalene muscles, etc. are actively involved, which helps to work out the lower, middle and upper parts of the lungs with high quality.¬†Breathing is carried out by the nose.¬†Inhale with your ‚Äúbelly‚ÄĚ: relax and inflate with a balloon, allowing the lower lungs to fill.¬†Then, while continuing to inhale, make a movement of the chest forward and to the sides (while the lower ribs should diverge to the sides).¬†As you finish inhaling, allow your collarbones to rise (your shoulders are not tense).¬†Exhale, lowering the collarbones, then the ribs, in the last place, tighten the abdomen.¬†This is the breathing cycle.¬†Breathe in this way for 5-10 minutes.
  • Ujai¬†.¬†Breathing is carried out with a slightly compressed glottis.¬†Breathing is carried out by the nose.¬†Bring the chin down and pull up towards the throat, slightly squeezing the glottis.¬†Breathe so that the sound you breathe comes from your throat, not your nose.¬†The sound of breathing should be heard not only by you, but also by those around you!¬†After completing a short breath, hold your breath for 1-2 seconds.¬†and, without relaxing your throat, exhale slowly, also holding your breath for 1-2 seconds.¬†The exhalation should be longer than the inhalation.¬†Breathe in this way for 5-10 minutes.
  • Visamavritti¬†is breathing characterized by the fact that the duration of inhalation and exhalation is not equal.¬†In this case, we will use exactly the extended exhalation, without holding the breath.¬†Breathing is carried out by the nose.¬†Stretch inhale for 2 seconds and exhale for 4 seconds.¬†As soon as you feel that you want to complicate the process, increase the duration, maintaining the ratio of 1: 2.¬†Breathe in this way for 5-10 minutes.
  • Chandra Bhedana¬†‚Äď Moon Breath.¬†Breathing is carried out by the nose.¬†Place the index and middle fingers of your right hand on the area between the eyebrows.¬†Close your right nostril with your thumb (but don‚Äôt squeeze too much!).¬†Inhale through the left nostril, and exhale through the right, after opening it.¬†Hold your breath for 1-2 seconds.¬†Repeat inhalation with the left nostril, and exhalation with the right for 5-10 minutes.

 

Anapanasati Hinayana as the development of awareness through observation of the breath will help to touch the mystery of meditative practices. Performance:

  • Sit on the floor with a straight back in a Turkish pose (with crossed legs), for convenience, you can put a folded blanket or pillow under the pelvis (you can also practice sitting on a chair).
  • Close your eyes.¬†Concentrate on the tip of the nose, watching as cool air enters through the nostrils and warmer air exits.
  • Don‚Äôt lose concentration.¬†Finding that the mind ‚Äúflew away‚ÄĚ, return it to the point of concentration.

Over time, you will find that the mind is much less distracted and more in control. The ability to subordinate the mind to control will make it possible to control emotions, thereby improving control over the nervous system.

Follow the recommendations described, and after a while you will notice the normalization of blood pressure, increased vitality.

 

Be healthy!

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